10,000 B.C. - 410 A.D. 563 - 1157 1237 - 1329 1414 - 1587 1603 - 1727 1745 - 1896 1901 - present
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Timeline of the Scottish History, Page 6: the years 1745 - 1896

1745 The Second Jacobite rebellion, lead from Scotland by famous Charles Edward Stuart (son of James Edward Stuart and better known as Bonnie Prince Charlie). As his father 30 years before him, he challenges the rule of the House of Hanover and is backed by the Scottish Highland clans as well.
1746 At first, Charles is quite successful in carrying out his rebellion: his army of volunteers and highlanders achieves the occupation of Edinburgh at the end of 1745, and makes astonishing progress afterwards during their march through England, where they conquer Lancaster, Manchester and Derby. However, their success is also related to disagreement in England; George II has to face inner opposition and is falsely informed about another Rebel army that is supposed to invade southern England by shipping over from France. Thus, Geroge II needs extraordinary much time to coordinate the defence against the Jacobites. But luck turns back to him when Charles gets persuaded to return back to the Highlands in order to summon up his troop's strength, instead of continuing his way through England and to attack the by now surprised and unprepared London. This strategical mistake gives George II time to strike back, and his retaliation is overwhelming: at the Battle of Culloden the Jacobite army is devastatedly defeated by an English army highly superior in numbers. Charles has to flee into the Highlands and escapes to France later on. However, consequences for the rebellious Highland Clans are cruel: many clan members are executed in show trials, the use of the Gaelic language is prohibited and the Highland culture is badly suppressed: even playing a bagpipe would result in a death penalty in these days.
1760 and later George II dies and is succeeded by his son George III, third British king of the House of Hanover. Scotland is recovering from the devastating strike against its self consciousness followed by the English suppression after the Jacobite rebellion and experiences several decades of both economical and cultural flourish, although both are more or less reduced on the by now quite anglicanised Lowlands. Scottish philosphers such as David Hume, Adam Smith and James Boswell become pioneers and central figures of the Enlightenment movement, which stated a primacy of reason and empirialism. The precursors of the industrial revolution could already be perceived in the prospering and rapidly growing Scottish metropolis Glasgow and Edinburgh.
1820 and later George IV becomes King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. He has already been reigning the country as "Prince Regent" in the past nine years for his father, who turned mad in 1811. The first decades of the 19th century witnesses the turn of the local European power Great Britain into the world's largest colonial power and thus the mightiest world empire since the time of the Romans. Incredible progresses are made in scientific and economical manners. While industrialisation and development continues in the Scottish Lowlands (i.e. by the opening of the first commercial railway between Edinburgh and Dalkeith in 1826), the Scottish Highlands are spared from the ongoing changes. In fact, their population decreases significantly, and many Highlanders move into the prospering cities or into the British colonies, while vast areas of northern Scotland get abandoned.
1832 Queen Victoria ascends the British throne as successor of William IV. She shapes the country's history for more than half a century, and under her rule the establishment of the British Empire as the world's dominating power is completed. This era, which also bears Victoria's name (Victorian Age), is marked by enormous social and cultural changes, a huge increase of population, and includes both incredible prosperity among the beneficiaries of colonialism and severe mass poverty within the working class force.
1860s and later More and more heavy industries are settled in Scotland, especially in Glasgow, which becomes a major ship building centre in order to guarantee Britains unique position as "ruler of the waves", the dominion over the oceans in both military and trade manners. Glasgow becomes the second largest metropolis of the British Empire.
1879 The first rail bridge over the Tay collapses in a stormy December night under a train coming from Edinburgh. The disaster inspires Theodor Fontane in writing his famous poem "Die Brück am Tay" and also has effects on the already planned construction of the Forth Rail Bridge nearby Edinburgh, with its drafts completely revised before the actual construction. The Forth Road Bridge is finally completed in 1890 and receives worldwide acknowledgement as an outstanding masterpiece of industrial architecture.
1896 The Glaswegian Underground Railway (the "shooglie") is opened. It is still the only Underground that has been constructed for a Scottish metropolis.