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Timeline of the Scottish History, Page 5: the years 1603 - 1727

1603 Queen Elisabeth I dies and James VI asceds the English throne as King James I and moves to London. It is the first time both England and Scotland are ruled by one king (Union of Crowns), although the countries still remain to be two independent monarchies with two parliaments and two National Churches.
1625 King Charles I succeeds his father on the English/Scottish throne. He establishes an absolutistic rule and resolves the English parliament at several occasions. Opposition raises at several fronts: the Scots revolt against plans of the Bishop of London to abolish the presbytherican constitution of the Scottish Church and install the Anglican Church instead. As a reaction, Scottish troops march into England. Charles is afraid of the breakdown of his kingdom and reinstalls the Parliament in 1640 in order to request resources for throwing back the Scottish rebels - and resolves it again only a few days later. However, the suppression of the revolt is not successful and he has to summon the Parliament again. In the meantime, harsh opposition has risen against the King, especially around the Parliament's leader John Prym and the Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell.
1648 The breakout of the English civil war as a result of the increasing tensions between Carl I and his supporters (Royalists) and the supporters of the Parliament, especially the Puritans. The Scottish Covenanters side with the English rebels lead by Cromwell, while the Earl of Montrose sides with King Charles; thus the civil strife is extended into Scotland.
1649 Charles I is exectuted. This changes general attitude in Scotland in favour to the monarchy and the Scots back up Charles I's son Charles II, who is proclaimed King in Edinburgh. However, the royalists are by now in the very defence, as the Republican army under Oliver Cromwell has gained control over most of Great Britain in the meantime.
1650 Cromwell invades Scotland and defeats the Scottish army in a serial of battles. Charles II has to flee to France and the English republic is declared.
1653 Cromwell dismisses the republican Rump Parliament and takes personal control over the country; the English Republic turns into a military dictatorship.
1658 Death of Oliver Cromwell. As his son Robert turns out to be incompenent to take over his father's position, Parliament finally restored Charles II as King in 1660, bringing to an end the only period in history in which England was a republic. Charles II neglected Scotland and concentrated on extending his power in England. He dies in 1685 and is followed by his Catholic brother James II (James VII of Scotland), which again evoked religious complications in protestant England and presbytherian Scotland.
1688 The Glorious Revolution. James is forced to abandon the throne and flee to France, while his daughter's husband William of Orange is favoured as successor. The protestant Dutch King accepts the offer and thus becomes King of England and Scotland, although especially in Scotland support for James II uprises within the first Jacobite rebellion. However, the rebels are defeated and James II is expelled from Ireland where he also found support among the Catholic population. William of Orange rules England and Scotland until his death in 1702 and is then succeeded by his sister-in-law Anne, a daughter of James II.
1707 Queen Anne signs the Act of Union, which finally united the kingdoms of Scotland and England politically within the Kingdom of Great Britain. Another result is the Union of Parliaments. Scots from now on send representatives to the British Parliament in Westminster in order to pursue Scottish interests, while the National Scottish Parliament is resolved. Scotland will not get another separate National Parliament until 1999. This historical event is still highly controversal in the public opinion of Scotland. While many Scots are convinced their country did benefit from the political union with England, especially economically, as it gave Scotland access to the resources of the English colonies, others claim that Scotland at this date has "sold its soul and its sovereignty" for the proverbial "30 pieces of silver".
1714 Queen Anne dies and is succeeded by the elector of Hanover, George, who, as a great-grandson of James I/VI, is the closest living relative. Being a native German, George I of Great Britain is the first ruler of the Kingdom for centuries who does not speak the English language and thus has to rely on a Prime Minister (the first one in British history). Again, opposition rises in the Scottish Highlands, especially after the arrival of James Edward Stuart (son of James II/VII and better known as 'The Old Pretender') at the Scottish eastern coast near Peterhead. The Highland Clans consider him to be the true king of Great Britain, but their revolt is fruitless and immediately ended by the Royal administration in London.
1727 Prince Georg August of Hanover and Brunswick-Lüneburg succeeds his father King George I as King George II on the British throne.