10,000 B.C. - 410 A.D. 563 - 1157 1237 - 1329 1414 - 1587 1603 - 1727 1745 - 1896 1901 - present
Home Scotland Edinburgh Pictures Fellows Miscellaneous
Scotland - General Information Scotland - History Scotland - Money Scotland - Map

Timeline of the Scottish History, Page 4: the years 1414 - 1587

1414 The University of St. Andrews is founded as the first University within Scotland.
1424 James I becomes King of Scotland and achieves to strenghten the position of the Crown again (after years of challenge especially by the Highland Clans). He renews the "Auld Alliance" with France and manages to limit the influence of the Clan lords.
1437 James I is assassinated and succeeded by his son James II, who continues the successful policy of his father. He manages to extinguish the rebellish Douglas Clan and takes advantage of the English "War of Roses", where the houses of York and Lancaster are struggeling for the vacant English throne.
1460 James II is killed by a barrel burst during the siege of Roxburgh Castle and is succeeded by his minor age son James III.
1468 James III marries Margaret, Princess of Denmark. As a result, the former Danish possessions on the Orkney- and Shetland Islands become Scottish. Scotland has reached its largest territorial extent.
1488 James III is assassinated during the Battle of Sauchieburn. His son James IV becomes King of Scotland. The following decades are marked by the movement of the Renaissance, which reaches Scotland during the turn of the century. Lyrics and poetry prosper, and Scotland brings out famous poets such as Robert Henryson, William Dunbar, Gavin Douglas and King James IV himself. The well educated monarch even learns Gaelic in order to make an approach to the Highland Clans, as Scotland is still divided between the Scots- or English speaking population of the Lowlands and the Gaelic population in the Highlands.
1513 The English King Henry VIII. invades France. James IV sees his chance and attacks England, but is defeated and killed in the Battle of Flodden. He is succeeded by his minor age son James V.
1534 Henry VIII renounces himself from the pope in Rome and founds the Anglican Church. The tensions between Scotland and England increase, as James V continues the close alliance with France. Furthermore, the close linking of James V to Rome is a provocation in Henry VIII's eyes.
1542 James V decides to go to war against England and is devastatedly defeated by Henry VIII's army. James V dies shortly after the defeat. His 9 month old daughter Mary Stuart is anoint Queen in Stirling and brought to France afterwards.
1560 Mary's mother, who had functioned as governor of the House of Stuarts, dies. Mary is forced to come back to Scotland and officially enters the throne. However, she remains alien to the Scottish people who had converted to Calvinism in the meantime. John Knox, moving spirit of the Scottish reformation (and also responsible for the destruction of countless Catholic churches at that time) rejects and attacks the Catholic Queen.
1565 Mary marries the Catholic Lord Darnley and provokes an insurrection of the Protestant Lords. However, the hostilities cease when James VI, heir ot the throne is born in 1566.
1567 Mary's husband Lord Darnley is assassinated. The initiator/s is/are never identified beyond doubt. However, Mary's quick re-marriage with the Earl of Bothwell, one of the suspects for the assassination (and accussed of the deed), brings the Scottish Lords back on the barricades. Mary is put under arrest and forced to renounce her right to the throne in favour for her one year old son James VI. She manages to flee from the arrest and, after an unsuccessful attempt to regain power, choses England as her exile, where she is imprisoned by the English Queen Elisabeth I.
1586 King James VI signs the Berwick treaty, an alliance with England against France.
1587 After 18 years of imprisonment, Mary Queen of Scots is finally executed. Her son James VI protests against the execution, but is not very insisting - as he does not want to risk his claims on the English throne, which he has as a descendant of Henry VII in case Elisabeth I dies childless (which eventually happened).