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Timeline of the Scottish History, Page 3: the years 1237 - 1329

1237 Alexander II accepts the Tweed-Solway line as Scottish border to England. Thus, Scotland loses several rich possessions on English territory.
1283 Alexander III, heir to the throne, has no living descendants except his grand daughter Margerete, daughter of the King of Norway. The girl is accepted as heir of the throne but dies during the crossing to Scotland.
1295 Scotland, under continued threat from England now, signs the treaty of the "auld alliance" with France.
1296 Despite Scotland's alliance with France, the English King Edward I ("the Hammer of the Scots") conquers and subjugates Scotland.
1297 The brutal and ruthless conquest of Scotland by Edward I provokes resolute resistance. It is the time when the famous revolutionary William Wallace leads the revolt of the Scots against the English rule. However, he is not entirely backed by all Scottish nobles, as some of them fear the loss of power and their possessions in England.
1298 The "Battle of Falkirk" ends with a devastating defeat of the Scottish rebels. Wallace is captured by the English in 1305 and is cruelly executed in London. He becomes a martyr for the Scots and is one of their most important national heroes until nowadays.
1306 Robert the Bruce gets himself crowned as King of Scotland. He is still not backed by the Scottish nobles and is persecuted by the English. However, he manages not to be captured and continues the attacks on the English occupants. Finally he even manages to receive the support of the Scottish nobility.
1314 Edward I dies in 1307, and 1314 his heir Edward II is defeated at the "Battle of Bannockburn" by Robert the Bruce. Scotland has finally regained its independence from England, which is later officially recognised by the English King Edward III in the treaty of Northampton (1328).
1329 Robert the Bruce dies. His 5 year old son David II becomes King of Scotland but has to leave it and seek asylum in France when Edward Balliol, encouraged by the English, challenges him for the Scottish Crown.