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Timeline of the Scottish History, Page 2: the years 563 - 1157

563 The Irishman St. Columba establishes a monastery at the Hebrid island of Iona with some fellow monks. This is generally seen as the start of Christianisation in Scotland, although Irish monks already started to spread out Christianity around the end of the Fourth Century. However, around 700 Scotland is entirely Christianized.
around 700 The tribes of the Picts, Scots (Scoti), Britons and Anglo-Saxons establish four competing Kingdoms within Scotland.
around 800 Scandinavian viKings establish bases and settlements on the Orkney- Shetland- and Hebrid Isles. They annect these isles and send raiding parties to mainland Scotland.
843 The Scots King Kenneth MacAlpin beats the invading Vikings on mainland Scotland, but the isles around Scotland remain Norse. However, MacAlpin is able to subjugate the competing Kingdom of the Picts under his rule; his Kingdom of Alba becomes the most powerful Kingdom in Scotland.
1016 The Kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons, Northumbria (located in the eastern lowlands), becomes part of Alba as well.
1034 The Kingdom of Strathclyde joins the now called "Kingdom of Scotia". Under King Malcolm II it is the first time that the territory of Scotland is under the authority of one crown (save the islands held by the Normans). However, the new Kingdom is far from being stable.
1066 Invasion of England by the Norman leader William the Conqueror, who subjugates the Germanic Kingdoms in England and is later crowned as William I of England. The Norman's influence is also increasing in Scotland several decades later (for instance, the Feudal system is established).
around 1120 Scotland experiences a relatively peaceful period under the rule of David I. He reorganises the structure of Scotland and founds many abbeys.
1137 David I refuses the request of Thurstan, archbishop of York, for a truce between England and Scotland until the return of the English King Steven from abroad. In the following year, the Scots invade Northumberland but are beaten by English troops unter Thurstan's command.
1157 David's grandson Malcolm III becomes a vassal to the English King Henry, which causes revolts of several Highland lords. However, Norman nobles back Malcolm as they favour a weak King. It lasts until around 1200 when Malcolm's nephew Alexander II. can reinstall the royal authority.